Discipline: Nutrition/Dietary

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: High school

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


There are ___ types of primary dietary carbs.   4

What are the 4 types of primary dietary carbs?
- monosaccharides
- disaccharides
- oligosaccharides
- digestible polysaccharides

Glucose, fructose and galactose are _____-saccharides.     mono

starch and glycogen are _____-saccharides.    poly

Raffinose and stachyose are ____-saccharides.    oligo

Sucrose, lactose and maltose are ______-saccharides.    di

Where are raffinose and stachyose (oligosaccharides) found?
- soy beans
- peas
- beans
- peanuts

______(Raffinose, stachyose) is a gal-glu-fru trisaccharide, while ______(Raffinose, stachyose) is that plus one galactose.   Raffinose, stachyose

the enzyme _____-______ is required to cleave the galactose from raffinose and stachyose.    alpha-galactosidase
Do humans have alpha-galactosidase?   NO

Since we don't have the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, the oligosaccharides _______ and _______ are passed on to the ______ ______ where they are fermented by __________.
raffinose, stachyose, large intestine, bacteria

Beano contains a ______ alpha-galactosidase, which allows you to digest some oligosaccharides.     fungal

_____ is composed mostly of non-digestible polysaccharides.    fiber

There are some soluble fibers like..

____ (gums, mucilages, pectins) are soluble fibers that are substituted polymers of galacturonic acid.   pectins

____ (gums, mucilages, pectins) are soluble fibers that are characterized by their ability to increase a solution's viscosity    gums

____ (gums, mucilages, pectins) are soluble fibers that tend to be sticky and form film   mucilages

There are some insoluble fibers, such as:
- lignin
- hemicellulose
- cellulose

______ (Cellulose, Hemicellulose) is smaller and contains sugars other than glucose and is branched.   hemicellulose

_____ (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) is a highly branched polymer that is also an insoluble fiber of modified phenylalanine.   lignin

Salivary amylase does a lot of starch and carb digestion. (t/f)
false!!! it's not in the mouth long enough and doesn't work in stomach at low pH

There is significant carb digestion in the stomach (t/f)
false! no carb enzyme works here at this low pH

Polysaccharides are typically digested by _______ (salivary, pancreatic) amylase.  pancreatic

All dietary disaccharides are eventually broken down by intestinal disaccharidases at the brush border (t/f)  true

Glucose and galactose are absorbed by ______ (active transport, facilitated diffusion). active transport

Fructose is absorbed by ______ (active transport, facilitated diffusion)
facilitated diffusion

Galactose and Glucose active transport is coupled to ______ movement.

What are the functions of carbs?
- provide energy
- prevent ketosis (are protein sparing)
- role in glycoproteins/glycolipids

______ (Insoluble, soluble) fiber slows gastric emptying, slows glucose absorption and is usually used by the 'right' bacteria.   soluble

______ (Insoluble, soluble) fiber adds fecal bulk- keeps you regular- and delays intestinal transit time.   insoluble

Insoluble fiber _______ (increases, decreases) intestinal transit time.

Insoluble fiber _______ (increases, decreases) nutrient absorption.

Carbs should make up ___-___% of TEI.    45-65

Fiber should get ____ g/day.   25

Typically, in the US, we get ~____% of energy from carbs.   50

Typical fiber intake in US is ___-___ g/day.    13-17

Increaesed fiber has what kind of health benefits?
- constipation
- hemorrhoids
- diverticulitis

_____ (Complex, Simple) sugars are common in low nutrient density foods and lead to more rapid absorption = sugar spike.

You should limit simple sugars to ____% of TEI.   10

Typically, people in the US get ~____% of TEI from simple sugars, which is too _____ (low, high).    16, high

The _____ ____ breaks down foods into essentially good or bad carbs.
glycemic index
The glycemic index is based on the...

rate of increase in blood glucose following ingestion of a food alone
When fiber/fat is present along with a carb, it helps _______ (increase, decrease) the rate of nutrient absorption, which is ______ (good, bad).
decrease, good

A potato alone would have a _______ (higher, lower) glycemic index score than a potato with cheese on it.   higher

The ______ (higher, lower) the glycemic index score, the worse it is.   higher

Supposedly, a high glycemic index score means you become hungry ______ (slower, faster).  faster

A health concern about 'high glycemic index' is that it stimulates the release of _______ (which is a normal physiological response anyway).   insulin

Insulin increases what kinds of things?
- blood triglycerides
- fat synthesis

High glycemic index may increase the risk for _______.
cardiovascular disease (CVD)

Most adults are completely 100% lactose tolerant (t/f)
false! many adults have some degree of lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a ______ (normal, rare) _______ (condition, disease).
normal condition

The primary controls of blood glucose are _______ and _______, which keep the level balanced.     insulin, glucagon

______ (Glucagon, Insulin) stimulates blood glucose levels to decrease.   insulin

______ (Glucagon, Insulin) stimulates blood glucose levels to increase.  Glucagon

______ (Glucagon, Insulin) stimulates muscle uptake of glucose.  Insulin

______ (Glucagon, Insulin) stimulates liver release of glucose.  glucagon

Hypoglycemia means too ______ (high, low) blood glucose. low

Hypoglycemia is ______ (common, uncommon) in normally nourished individuals.

Hypoglycemia is most likely to occur in what kind of patients?
diabetic patients on medications for it

Onset of hypoglycemic symptoms is _____ (rapid, slow)   rapid

How can hypoglycemic symptoms be reversed?
by eating a small amount of glucose-rich food

Hypoglycemia causes such symptoms as:
hunger, shakiness, nervousness, sweating, dizziness, sleepiness, confusion, difficulty speaking, anxiety, weakness

Hypoglycemia can also happen during ______. sleep

______ (Complex, Simple) carbs/sugars should be the major source of carbohydrate in the diet.   Complex

______ (Complex, Simple) carbs/sugars should be a minor source of carbohydrate in the diet, though most people usually eat much more. Simple

Examples of ______ (Complex, Simple) carbs/sugars are potatoes, rice, wheat and other grains. Complex

______ starch is that which passes through our small intestine and can be used by bacteria in the large intestine.  Resistant

There are ___ types of resistant starches.   3

RS ___ (1, 2, 3) are amylose and amylopectin, and during cooking/cooling, they undergo a process called retrogradation.   3

RS ___ (1, 2, 3) are starches trapped within seeds which aren't broken down during chewing and digestion.   1

RS ___ (1, 2, 3) are a crystalline type of starch present during some stages of plant development.    2

What is an example of a naturally occurring simple sugar?   lactose

Most simple sugars in our diet are _______ (natural, synthesized)
_______ are compounds added to foods by either individuals or processors to increase their palatability.   Sweeteners

There are ___ major categories of sweeteners.  2

What are the 2 major categories of sweetener?
1) nutritive
2) non-nutritive

What are some examples of nutritive sweeteners?
- sucrose
- fructose
- glucose
- invert sugar
- sugar alcohols
- honey, molasses
- high fructose corn syrup

_____ is the most common member of the nutritive sweeteners. sucrose

______ is sweeter than sucrose and is also a nutritive sweetener.   fructose

_____ ____ is hydrolyzed sugar.
invert sugar

Invert sugar is an equimolar mixture of ______ and _______ and is sweeter than ______.
fructose, glucose, sucrose

What are some examples of sugar alcohols (which are nutritive sweeteners)?
- isomalt
- malitol
- mannitol
- sorbitol
- xylitol
- hydrogenated starch hydrolases

Sugar alcohols are used to provide sweetness and usually have a ______ (higher, lower) caloric content.

Sugar alcohols, while having lower calories, also have _____ (more, less) of an impact on blood glucose and _____ (more, less) metabolism by oral flora.
less, less

Though sugar alcohols can be called 'sugar-free', they are not necessarily _____-free.  carb

Sugar alcohols occur naturally in ______ and ______, so they aren't 'bad' for you.
fruits, berries

Most sugar alcohols are converted to ______ once absorbed.  glucose

Though sugar alcohols usually have less impact on blood glucose, if consumed in VERY high amounts, they still can! (t/f)  true

In high levels, sugar alcohols may be poorly absorbed and have a laxative effect *(t/f)   true

______ ____ ______ are a type of sugar alcohol and are a mixture of polyols obtained during a hydrogenation process.
hydrogenated starch hydrolyases

high fructose corn syrup is especially bad for you and toxic (t/f)   false!

High fructose corn syrup contains ~___-___% fructose.

High fructose corn syrup is essentially metabolically the same as _______ and is not worse in any way.

What are some different examples of non-nutritive sweeteners?
- acesulfame potassium
- aspartame
- advantame
- neotame
- saccharin
- sucralose
- cyclamate
- stevia
- tagatose

Most non-nutritive sweeteners are much ______ (more, less) sweet than sucrose.    more

______ is a non-nutritive sweetener that was banned for possible cancer-causing effects but has since been proven not to.    cyclamate

______ is a 'sweetener' not approved by the FDA as a sweetener and is thus sold as a 'supplement that is sweet'   stevia

_______ is an epi
mer of fructose and a non-nutritive sweetener    tagatose

The idea that dental decay is the result of fermentable carbohydrates is a ____ (new, old) discovery.   new

Hunter/fisher diets had caries rates less than ____% and with added starch and carbs, this increased ___-____ fold.    15, 2-3

In 'isolated' populations that had very little carbs (esp simple carbs), there were very _____ (low, high) caries rates. These rates _______ (increased, decreased) greatly with the intro of carbs and sugars.
low, increased

The 19___s had the major, long term studies that finally clearly linked simple sugars to dental caries.   50

The ______ (Hopewood House, Vipeholm) study studied caries rates in inmates of a mental institution.

The ______ (Hopewood House, Vipeholm) study studied caries rates in orphans in Australia.
Hopewood House

In both the Vipeholm and Hopewood house studies, the subjects had very _____ (high, low) caries rates at first, which then ______ (increased, decreased) with the addition of carbohydrate.
low, increased

In both the Hopewood House and Vipeholm study, the subjects had very ______ (good, poor) oral hygiene.  poor

The ______ (Hopewood House, Vipeholm) study showed very clearly that retentiveness of the sugar and frequency of consumption were most important in causing caries.   Vipeholm

______ (Non-retentive, retentive) sugars have the greatest risk for causing caries.   retentive

______ (Amount, frequency) of sugar ingested is more important in causing caries.  frequency

People with hereditary fructose intolerance, even with same oral hygiene, showed significantly _______ (increased, decreased) caries rate than those without the intolerance.   decreased

There are ___ main factors needed for caries to occur.

Whatare the 4 main factors needed for caries to occur?
- time
- host
- substrate
- organism

It is required that the bacteria produce ______ in order to cause caries.    acid

Acid production by bacteria must lower the pH below the '_______' pH in order to cause caries.

For most dentition, the critical pH is _____.    5.5

The bond between glucose and fructose in sucrose is sufficient for enzymes secreted by oral bacteria to convert them into _______ and ________, which form matrices that attach to our teeth and provide a place for the bacteria to grow.   dextrans, levans

Only sucrose really causes caries (t/f)
false! any fermentable carb can be metabolized and cause a drop in pH

To be labeled non-cariogenic, the food must not drop the pH below _____ for at least ____ minutes after consumption.     5.7,30