In your own words, describe the primary difference between consequentialist and non-consequentialist approaches to ethics.Choose one of the major theories associated with consequentialism: what objections might be made to this theory?Choose one of the major theories associated with non-consequentialism: what objections might be made to this theory?
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To understand the primary difference between consequentialist and non-consequentialist approaches to ethics, it is important to recognize their fundamental premises. Consequentialism focuses on the consequences or outcomes of an action to determine its ethical value, while non-consequentialism recognizes other factors such as duty, intention, and goodness in themselves. Both approaches have their own set of theories and objections.
1. The primary difference between consequentialist and non-consequentialist approaches to ethics is that the former considers the consequences of an action and the latter recognizes intrinsic values independent of consequences. Consequentialism emphasizes the outcome of actions, and whether they bring happiness, pleasure, or success. Non-consequentialism acknowledges the motivation behind actions, duty, respect, and inherent values.
2. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist approach that argues that actions should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people. One major objection to this theory is its tendency to sacrifice the rights and happiness of minorities and individuals for the greater good of society. The idea of measuring happiness and comparing it between individuals is also criticized for being subjective and inadequate.
3. Deontology is a non-consequentialist approach that emphasizes the inherent value of human beings and their rights. It suggests that certain actions are always right or wrong, regardless of their outcomes. One major objection to this theory is its rigidity and lack of flexibility in situations where moral duties may conflict. It also faces criticism for not providing concrete guidelines for determining what moral duties are and how they should be prioritized.
In summary, consequentialist and non-consequentialist approaches to ethics differ in their focus on outcomes and intrinsic values, respectively. Utilitarianism and deontology are two major theories associated with these approaches, each with their own set of objections.
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